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I think you are confused about what managed hosting is. ServerPilot and Cloudways are not managed hosts. They don't provide hosting at all. They are basically control panels, similar to cPanel, DirectAdmin, etc.
Depends on the server configurations. A VPS on a low-spec server is likely not going to perform anywhere near as well as a shared hosting account on an high-spec server. Plus you have to remember, with shared hosting, you are almost always (perhaps even 100% of the time) getting a control...
Probably not...no, as most residential IPs don't take DDoS attacks. If they do have some sort of protection in place, continued attacks are going to result in you being terminated.
Other than DDoS? Redundant power. Uptime SLA, single-homed network (instead of a blend), slow upload speeds on...
Hosting a server from home is a VERY bad idea, unless you're just doing it for a personal server for a hobby as such. You can buy remote DDoS protection that gets filtered to your home IP, but it's not cheap.